The editor of Peculiar Pages’ forthcoming edition of <i>Dorian</i> and two other scholars of Nephi Anderson (at least one of whom will make appearances in our volume) are presenting at the premier conference for the study of all things Scandinavian, being held the first weekend of May in San Francisco. Behold:
Nephi Anderson, Mormonism’s Norwegian-American Novelist
In 1898, Norwegian-American Nephi Anderson was one of the first Mormons to publish a novel in book form. Over the next twenty years, he published nine novels and several short stories, a number of which he set in his native Norway. At his untimely death in 1923, he was recognized throughout Utah as the premier Mormon man of letters. By the 1970s, however, all but one of his books were out of print and his reputation suffered as a rising generation of Mormon literary critics dismissed the apparent sentimentality and didactic quality of his work.
This panel represents a growing number of scholarly reappraisals of Anderson. Rather than focusing on the aesthetic merits of his work, as previous scholars have, we intend to focus on his Scandinavian-American roots and how they informed his contributions to early Mormon fiction. Sarah Reed argues against existing scholarship to show that Anderson’s works belong to Norwegian-American literature as they explore the intersection of the Norwegian immigrant and American Mormonism. Scott Hales examines Anderson’s construction of Mormon masculinity in light of the Mormonism’s 1890 abandonment of polygamy and contemporaneous Nordicist racial discourse. Eric Jepson, a publisher of Mormon fiction who is preparing a new edition of Anderson’s Dorian (1921), describes how Anderson’s place as a Norwegian-American writer was lost as Mormons and Norwegian immigrants became more assimilated into American society in the twentieth century, and outlines efforts to bring his works to today’s scholars and readers.
With this panel, we hope that our revisionist approach to Anderson will help reinstate him as a Norwegian-American writer and give his long-overlooked contribution to Mormon and Scandinavian-American fiction the recognition it has so far evaded.
“Nephi Anderson and Norwegian-American Literature: Toward a Transnational Mormon Identity”
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Several of Mormon immigrant Nephi Anderson’s stories and novels have significant Norwegian or other Scandinavian elements. Despite these characters and settings, scholars of Norwegian- and Scandinavian-American literature have neglected this prolific and regionally popular author. In the only relevant study, Ole Podhorny argues that Nephi does not count as an immigrant author because he is not “concerned with questions of Norwegian cultural heritage” and his “religious roots were deeper than his cultural roots” (78). In this presentation, I will offer a critical reevaluation of Anderson’s works to show their place in Scandinavian-American or “immigrant” literature. I claim Nephi Anderson does count as an “immigrant” author and is concerned with preserving Norwegian cultural heritage as it intersects with his understanding of Mormonism—his “roots” intertwine rather than compete. Anderson uses Mormon cosmology to inscribe Norway into its sacred narrative and America and Norway do not compete in his stories, but contribute to the long history of building God’s kingdom on earth. As such, Anderson offers Mormonism as a transformative and transnational identity that he employs to legitimize Norwegian (and Scandinavian more broadly) participation in this American religion while simultaneously subverting its Anglo-American custodianship.
“Nephi Anderson and the New Mormon Masculinity”
University of Cincinnati
Throughout the nineteenth century, Mormon self-representation rarely succeeded in overturning the enormously influential negative representations of Mormons in novels like Alfreda Eva Bell’s Boadicea; The Mormon Wife (1855) and Cornelia Paddock’s The Fate of Madam La Tour (1881), which often cast Mormons as a heathen and degenerate people. In these novels, Mormon men particularly were caricaturized as ignorant, amoral brutes with a thirst for blood and sex. This caricature went almost unchallenged in nineteenth-century fiction, and due to a cultural aversion to fiction, Mormon creative writers seldom responded to it until the early twentieth century, when Mormon masculinity found an unlikely champion in a bookish Norwegian-American named Nephi Anderson.
For my presentation, I will explore how Anderson used the novel to construct a new Mormon masculinity. Specifically, I will look at his novels The Castle Builder (1902), set in Norway, and Dorian (1921), set in Utah, to show how he reconfigured Mormon masculinity following the 1890 Mormon disavowal of polygamy and other practices that set Mormonism apart from mainstream American culture. I will also explore the possibility that Anderson’s concept of masculinity was influenced by Nordicist ideas that were common in the racial discourse of his day.
“Lost to Assimilation: Rehabilitating Nephi Anderson,
Mormon Norwegian-American Writer”
Eric W. Jepson
Mormon assimilation into general American society during the twentieth century resulted in a loss of literary tradition. When a church-owned publisher began offering novels in the late 1970s, many felt something unprecedented was occurring, even though Mormon novels had existed for decades and Nephi Anderson’s Added Upon (1898), the first published Mormon novel, had never been out of print.
Added Upon’s cultural influence is still apparent to those able to recognize it, but few can. This loss of cultural literacy parallels those of other American minorities, such as Anderson’s fellow Norwegian immigrants, who come to America and within a generation or two are no more likely to have Wergeland on their shelves than Anderson.
In my presentation, I will discuss how Anderson’s reputation is undergoing a reevaluation. I am currently compiling an edition of Dorian that will include essays on the novel and its place in Mormon history, what it has to say about Mormon assimilation, Anderson’s place as a Norwegian-American and Mormon-American author; Anderson’s own essays on literary philosophy; comparisons between the manuscript and typescript; and notes on the text itself. This and other current efforts are heralds of Anderson’s to relevance and are paving the way for later scholarship on this largely forgotten Norwegian-American novelist.